CHAPTER IV

MAN, HIS NATURE AND CONSTITUTION

In the beginning God alone existed. As the ages of eternity rolled by, He put forth a creative act, the result of which was the bringing into existence of the physical, material universe: "... that formed the earth and made it, that established it and created it not a waste, that formed it to be inhabited ..." (Isa. 45:18).¹ The earth became wrecked and was made desolate:² "And the earth became a desolation and a waste" (Gen. 1:2, lit. trans.). There were six days of reconstruction, during which God repaired to a certain extent the damage that had been wrought in order that the earth might again be inhabited.

On the fifth day the Lord put forth a second creative act, the result of which was the bringing into existence of marine life and the fowls of the air. Following this activity, on the sixth day He continued to bring into existence living creatures, the land animals.

On this same day, after a conference was held in the Godhead, the Lord created man in His own image and in His likeness. Thus He stepped forward and brought an entirely different type of being into existence in His creating man. There is, according to the usage of the Hebrew term bara' translated create, an impassable gap existing between the highest form of animal life and man.

I. MAN IN HIS ORIGINAL CONDITION

"And God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them" (Gen. 1:27). When God created man, we may be certain that he was perfect; for all of the works of Jehovah are perfect (Deut. 32:4). This fact becomes apparent to a person when he realizes that God is perfect and cannot countenance sin. (See Hab. 1:12,13.) The Lord put man in the Garden of Eden when He created him and constantly visited him, holding sweet fellowship and communion with him. When, however, he sinned and partook of the forbidden fruit the Lord no longer could come and continue His association with him--as He had been doing. This fact shows that he was perfect and holy at the beginning--prior to his transgression of the one and only prohibition which the Lord placed upon him.

A. Created Perfect with the Power of Choice

As just shown, man was perfect and was fit to associate with his Holy Creator. Like all the other creatures whom the Lord brought into existence, man was given the power of free choice. This truth is seen by the fact that God permitted man to partake of the fruit of all the trees of Eden, where he was placed, with the exception of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Concerning it, he was warned that the day on which he partook of it, "dying, thou shalt surely die" (Gen. 2:16,17, lit. trans.). There were no material barriers preventing his approaching this forbidden tree. He could partake of all the other trees and continue in his fellowship with God. But the very day on which he should partake of that, the communion with his Maker would be broken. Such was the warning. These facts show that man was a moral creature with the ability to make free choices.

In the Hebrew one of the words for man is taken from a word the feminine of which means soil. This meaning may point to a connection with the earth--in contrast to heaven. But in the Greek the word for man is derived from the expression which literally rendered is
the upward looking one. This name is quite significant. It shows that the Greeks did not class men with animals, but above them. According to the Sanskrit, the word for man indicates thinking. This fact is also most significant. Man is the highest type of creature whom God brought into existence to inhabit the reconstructed earth.

B. First the Natural, then the Spiritual

"So also it is written, The first man Adam became a living soul. The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46 Howbeit that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; then that which is spiritual" (I Cor. 15:45,46). According to this passage the first Adam was a living soul; the second Adam was a life-giving spirit. We know what the natural man is, that is, man as he is by nature. Of course we are to understand that Paul was talking about man as he was originally created in his perfect condition--as he was before sin entered the world and corrupted his nature. Even in this condition he was in the natural state, limited by both time and space, physical objects being hindrances to his progress from one point to another, if they were in his way.

In the spiritual state for which man was created, the material objects would have been no impediment or hindrance to him. He could have been at a certain place one moment and a great distance away in the twinkling of an eye. Angels are spirits in contrast with the natural creatures. They are non-corporeal, since they do not have physical, material bodies. Distances are practically nothing to them. For instance, the angel Gabriel that stands before God was dispatched to Daniel's side when he began to pray. He uttered the four-minute prayer that is found in Daniel 9:3-19. By the time he had finished this short petition, Gabriel was at his side, speaking to him.

20 And while I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before Jehovah my God for the holy mountain of my God; 21 yea, while I was speaking in prayer the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation. 22 And he instructed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee wisdom and understanding. 23 At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment went forth, and I am come to tell thee; for thou art greatly beloved (Dan. 9:20-23a).

Christ was in the spiritual state after His resurrection. A wonderful insight we get concerning this phase of our subject when we turn to the twentieth chapter of the Gospel of John. Upon being told by the women who visited the tomb on the resurrection morning that Jesus had been raised, Peter and John began running toward it. John outran Peter. Upon arriving, he looked in, but did not enter. When Peter came up, he without hesitation entered. Then John went in. They saw the grave cloths in which our Lord had been buried lying undisturbed. The napkin which had been around His head was likewise lying in its own place:

4 And they ran both together: and the other disciple outran Peter, and came first to the tomb; 5 and stooping and looking in, he seeth the linen cloths lying; yet entered he not in. 6 Simon Peter therefore also cometh, following him, and entered into the tomb; and be beholdeth the linen cloths lying 7 and the napkin, that was upon his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by itself. 8 Then entered in therefore the other disciple also, who came first to the tomb, and he saw, and believed (John 20:4-8).

The sight of the grave cloths as they were was convincing proof to Peter and John that Christ had been raised from the dead. How could this be any proof of such a stupendous miracle? When we remember that a hundred pounds of spices prepared for this very purpose were used in the burial of Jesus, when we remember the additional fact that there were juices that came from these spices, and when we also remember the further fact that these juices would cause the grave cloths to stiffen and retain the same shape as they were when they were wound around His body, we can see how the grave cloths were a proof of His resurrection. The force of this argument may be seen from the following fact: When a physician, for instance, sets a broken arm, frequently he puts it in a plaster of paris cast. When it is made, the material is soft. But as it dries, it hardens and retains the exact shape of the arm. Thus it was with the cloths wound around the body of Jesus. They retained the exact shape and size of His body. But when Peter and John saw the cloths and noted the fact that the body of Jesus was not there enshrouded, they knew that something had occurred. There was no evidence that human hands had touched those cloths. Nevertheless, the body of Jesus was no longer there. There was but one explanation, which was that His body had entered the spiritual state, and that it had passed out of its place without, in the least, affecting or moving the grave cloths. It was impossible for anyone to remove the body out of the cloths and to put them back as they were when they were around His body. This is a self-evident proposition. Had there been any such manipulation of the cloths, the Apostles would not have been convinced that Jesus had arisen from the dead. The facts that the cloths were intact and untouched, and that the body of Jesus no longer was within, proved to them His resurrection. By this miracle of glorification, the actual, literal, physical body of the Lord Jesus became spiritual.

We get another glimpse of some of the phenomena connected with a spiritual body by noting the fact that, on the night of the resurrection day, the Lord Jesus appeared in the midst of the room in which ten of the disciples were gathered. When He entered, the doors were locked and barred. But He came and stood in their midst. "When therefore it was evening, on that day, the first
day of the week, and when the doors were shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and saith unto them. Peace be unto you" (John 20:19).

The stone walls of the building were no hindrance, or impediment, to His spiritual body. Just before this event, He had appeared to Cleopas and another disciple on the way to Emmaus. At their request to come in and spend the night, when they reached their home, He went in and reclined with them at supper. After He blessed the bread, suddenly He disappeared. Thus, at various times, He appeared to His disciples in His spiritual body.

The transfiguration, scene will throw still more light upon this subject. On this occasion Peter, James, and John were with Jesus:

28 And it came to pass about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter and John and James and went up into the mountain to pray. 29 And as he was praying, the fashion of his countenance was altered, and his raiment
became white and dazzling. 30 And behold, there talked with him two men, who were Moses and Elijah; 31 who appeared in glory, and spake of his decease which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 32 Now Peter and they that were with him were heavy with sleep: but when they were fully awake, they saw his glory, and the two men that stood with him. 33 And it came to pass, as they were parting from him, Peter said unto Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah: not knowing what he said. 34 And while he said these things, there came a cloud, and overshadowed them: and they feared as they entered into the cloud. 35 And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my Son, my chosen: hear ye him. 36 And when the voice came, Jesus was found alone. And they held their peace, and told no man in those days any of the things which they had seen (Luke 9:28-36).

The Apostle Peter, an eyewitness, interprets the transfiguration scene:

17 For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when there was borne such a voice to him by the Majestic Glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased: 18 and this voice we ourselves heard borne out of heaven, when we were with him in the holy mount. 19 And we have the word of prophecy made more sure; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day-star arise in your hearts: 20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of scripture is of private interpretation. 21 For no prophecy ever came by the will of man: but men spake from God, being moved by the Holy Spirit (II Pet. 1:17-21).

Immediately before this event the Lord had foretold His tragic death which He would suffer in Jerusalem at the hands of the leaders of Israel. Peter had protested, declaring that this tragedy should never occur. When, however, Jesus was with the three in the Mount of Transfiguration and was praying, and when they had awakened from a very deep sleep, they saw Moses and Elijah, who were talking with Jesus about His decease. Of course it is impossible for us to know just what was said; but since the topic of conversation was Christ's exodus out of this life, it is altogether possible that Moses told of his exodus, when God buried him. It is also possible that Elijah spoke of his translation and of his not tasting death, but leaving this life by being caught up into heaven. As these three were talking, Jesus' face began to shine forth with a halo of glory. In fact, His entire body began to radiate with splendor, which shone through His garments. What was this? With a moment's reflection, anyone concludes that the process of the transformation of our Lord's body from the natural into the spiritual had begun. If this had continued, the complete metamorphosis of His natural body would have become a reality. This transformation was normal for a sinless body like His. It would have evolved into the spiritual.

I might illustrate this further by calling attention to the caterpillar. What is the caterpillar? It is at first the long, wormlike larva of the butterfly. In the popular mind the caterpillar is simply a worm and moves similarly to that of others of the species. It finally evolves into the butterfly. When it reaches this stage of its metamorphosis, it throws off the wormlike coat and steps forth, having an entirely different form. With its wings, it can leave the ground and soar in the air. As a worm it is rather repulsive to us; but, when it reaches the butterfly stage, it is a thing of beauty. It is normal for the caterpillar to pass through this transitional stage into the butterfly. Thus it was with the Lord Jesus, whose body was apart from all sin, and who knew no sin in any form whatsoever. Had He allowed this process of metamorphosis to continue when it began on this occasion, His life's work would have been a complete failure. He would have passed into the glorified state and would have left the human race to its fate. The penalty of Adam's transgression was death, separation from God. As we have seen, the death against which God warned Adam was both physical and spiritual, that is, separation from God, even final and eternal separation from God--unless something was done to counteract the power and evil affects of sin and death, which thing Jesus, the Son of God, came into the human realm to accomplish, as we shall see in Chapters VII and VIII.

Positive confirmation of the position just taken regarding man as he was originally made in order to evolve out of the natural into the spiritual without dying is seen in another passage, John 12:20-36. On the last day of the public ministry of Jesus of Nazareth certain Greeks approached Philip, one of the Apostles, and asked that they might see Jesus. Philip approached Andrew, and they two came to the Lord Jesus and revealed to Him the desire of the Greeks. In reply He said to them, "The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. 24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat fall into the earth and die, it abideth by itself alone; but if it die, it beareth much fruit" (John 12:23,24). Jesus knew the plots of His enemies to kill Him, as is set forth in John 11:55-57:

55 Now the passover of the Jews was at hand: and many went up to Jerusalem out of the country before the passover, to purify themselves. 56 They sought therefore for Jesus, and spake one with another, as they stood in the temple, What think ye? That he will not come to the feast? 57 Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given commandment, that, if any man knew where he was, he should show it, that they might take him.

The knowledge that His beloved people as a nation would not accept Him crushed His heart. The inquiry and the seeking of these Greeks doubtless brought to His mind the prophecy of Isaiah 65:1 which reads as follows: "I am inquired of by them that asked not for me; I am found of them that sought me not: I said, Behold me, behold me, unto a nation that was not called by my name." The hostility of His people and the desire of the Greeks to learn the truth brought vividly before His mind and heart the situation which was immediately confronting Him, the hour of His suffering and transformation. He knew the terrific price which He would have to pay for this glorification of which He speaks in John 12:23. He illustrates it by calling attention to the fact that a grain of wheat remains as it is while it is in the barn or granary. On the other hand, if it is cast into the soil and dies, it brings forth much fruit. The body of the grain sustains the germ and gives its vitality to the young plant. By its dying it makes possible the yielding of a great increase. In verse 25 the Lord spoke plainly and indicated His meaning. In doing this, He declared, "He that loveth his life loseth it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal." In the language of this general proposition the Lord Jesus held His physical life as not dear unto Himself, but was willing to give it up, like the grain of wheat cast into the ground, in order that He might produce much fruit to the glory and the honor of God. Thus by this illustration and the statement of the principle involved in it, Jesus showed that it was necessary for Him to die in order that He might bring forth fruit in the form of redeemed souls, not only in Israel, but throughout the entire world.

Like Adam, Christ had a perfect physical body. Adam, however, transgressed and sin entered his entire nature and corrupted the same. But the Lord Jesus refused to yield to sin. His flesh, therefore, remained pure and unstained. At the transfiguration scene had He chosen to let nature take its course, His physical body would have unfolded and developed into the spiritual, the immortal. Thus the Lord Jesus, the second Adam, would have remained alone, like the unplanted grain of wheat. He would not have borne any fruit--He would not have brought anyone to God. By dying, however--giving up His physical life as a ransom for the human race--He would yield much fruit unto God. This passage, therefore, confirms the position that man as he was created originally was destined to develop out of the natural body into the spiritual.

May I use a rather crude illustration--for lack of a better one--in setting forth this important principle? At airfields there are runways on which planes take off and land. When the engines have gained a certain speed and power, they gently arise from the earth and ascend into the air where they have free movement. Thus we may think of the runway of the airport as the level upon which man, when he was originally created a natural being, passed along. Finally, when he should reach a certain stage of his development, he, like the airplane, would leave the low level of the natural and ascend into the ethereal realms of the spiritual. Such was the divine plan for him originally. But alas! sin marred his prospects.

C. Man the Ruler Over the Earth

"And God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. 28 And God blessed them: and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth" (Gen. 1:27,28). From this passage we see that man was given authority over the fowls of the air, over the beasts of the field, and over the fish in the sea. Certainly man in the natural state could not exercise such far-reaching powers as are here designated. The fact that he was given such unlimited powers over the lower forms of life presupposes that he would exercise these functions to the fullest extent when he reached the glorified or spiritual state.


II. THE TRANSGRESSION OF ADAM

When God created man, He placed him in the Garden of Eden. To him He gave the privilege of eating of the fruit of all the trees in the Garden except one, namely, the tree of the knowledge of good and of evil. He had access to the tree of life, as well as to all the other trees.

When man was created, his will was free and untrammeled. Being holy and pure, he was not influenced by any bias toward evil. Neither was he subject to coercion from any other being. Hence the decisions which he made were voluntary--of his own will.

A. Man's Exercising His Power of Choice

As has been stated, God endowed all His intelligent creatures with the power of choice. Man could exercise this faculty, choosing the good, the better, or the best; or he could choose that which was poor, poorer, or the poorest--and still, exercising his power of choice, remain on the positive side of God's commands and will. On the other hand, he could cross over to the negative side and go beyond the limits of His province. In doing so, he would be pitting his will against that of the Almighty. But in crossing over to the negative side, he would be still exercising his God-given faculty of freedom of choice and will. When he did this, he crossed over into forbidden territory. God laid the situation before man in the following words: "Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: 17 but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. 2:16,17).

Man had access to the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. But the Lord warned him that the very day on which he should partake of the fruit of this tree "dying, thou shalt surely die" (lit. trans.). As a sequel to this situation we find that man by the exercise of his will and power of choice got outside of the will of God. He could have remained within the limits prescribed for him and could have, as we have already seen, passed out of the natural state into the spiritual without dying. But his exercising his God-given faculty of freedom of choice caused him to transgress and resulted in his fall.

B. Man's Sinning on the Human Plane

As a human being in the natural state, man exercised his choice against God and lost all. In order that we might comprehend this situation in the proper light, let us turn to Genesis, chapter 3, and see the exact facts in the case.

3 Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which Jehovah God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden? And the woman said unto the serpent, Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat: but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves aprons. And they heard the voice of Jehovah God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Jehovah God amongst the trees of the garden.

And Jehovah God called unto the man, and said unto him, Where art thou? And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And Jehovah God said unto the woman, What is this thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. And Jehovah God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: and I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed: he shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy conception; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. And the man called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. And Jehovah God made for Adam and for his wife coats of skins, and clothed them.

And Jehovah God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever--therefore Jehovah God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden the Cherubim, and the flame of a sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. (Genesis 3:1-24)

We are told that the serpent was more subtle than all the beasts of the field which God had created. He approached Eve and began a conversation with her. His coming and talking with her Eve accepted as a matter of course. This fact shows that the serpent, at least, had the power of speech and could converse with man. He in a most cunning and deceptive manner, led Eve to believe that God was not the friend to her that He claimed to be, and that He was withholding from her that which was good. She did not attempt to reason out the things which Satan, through the serpent, was saying to her. Eve, listening to his lies and not using reason, was deceived. She therefore exercised the power of choice and partook of the forbidden fruit--she crossed over from the realm of God's will into that which was contrary to it. She took the fatal, disastrous step by being deceived.

Eve brought of the forbidden fruit to Adam, her husband. He took the situation in. He reasoned about the matter; and, in the full light of all the facts, he deliberately pitted his will against that of the Almighty. When he did this, he partook of the fruit. "... and Adam was not beguiled, but the woman being beguiled hath fallen into transgression" (I Tim. 2:14). By this act of disobedience, as we shall see, sin came into the world, and through it death entered the human realm. Thus wreckage and ruin came upon the entire human family.

Judgment by the Almighty was pronounced upon the serpent, upon the woman, and upon the man. Thus our foreparents were driven out from the presence of God.

A glance at the situation and the circumstances under which both Adam and Eve sinned shows that they were on an entirely different footing--one was totally deceived; the other sinned deliberately and willfully. In the law which was delivered by Moses, God made a distinction between sins committed unwittingly and those committed with a high hand, presumptuous sins: "And if one person sin unwittingly, then he shall offer a she-goat a year old for a sin-offering. 28 And the priest shall make atonement for the soul that erreth, when he sinneth unwittingly, before Jehovah, to make atonement for him; and he shall be forgiven. 29 Ye shall have one law for him that doeth aught unwittingly, for him that is home-born among the children of Israel, and for the stranger that sojourneth among them. 30 But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand, whether he be home-born or a sojourner, the same blasphemeth Jehovah; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. 31 Because he hath despised the word of Jehovah, and hath broken his commandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off; his iniquity shall be upon him" (Num. 15:27-31).

Although there was a vast difference between Adam's transgression and Eve's sin, as well as in the motives prompting them, they suffered the same fate in that the death sentence was pronounced against them both, they were both driven from the presence of God, and both were separated from communion and fellowship with Him. Since God deals with each according to his work, as the Scriptures abundantly testify, how can we understand God's dealing with both Adam and Eve in the manner in which He handled the case? The answer to this problem probably lies in the historical facts that are embedded in the Sacred Text concerning the creation of woman.

We are told in Genesis, chapter 1, that God created man. Since there was not found a companion for him, as there was for each of the beasts, the Lord God said that it was not good for man to be alone; therefore He would make a "helper as over against him" (literal translation), a helper suitable to his needs. Thus He caused a deep sleep to come over Adam. When he was thus anesthetized (the thought expressed in modern phraseology), the Lord performed a surgical operation upon him. In doing this, He removed from Adam's side a rib, and out of that which He removed, He built the woman. When the Lord brought her to him, Adam exclaimed, "This the stroke!" (lit. trans.). In ordinary parlance of today we would express his thought something like this: "This is the right and proper thing which you have done, Lord." Instantly he fell in love with her. Then he said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. 24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh" (Gen. 2:23,24). Adam's statement, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh," is quite revealing. Out of that which God removed from the man's side, He built the woman. Adam recognized this fact and declared that her flesh had been made out of his own flesh, as well as her-bones out of his bones. This statement shows that God removed not only a bone from the side of Adam, but also took flesh from his body. Thus that which was removed was capable of being built or made into a woman.


Footnotes:

¹ 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was waste and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.

And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.

And God said, Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years: and let them be for lights in the firmament of heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. And God made the two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. And God set them in the firmament of heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.

And God said, Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that moveth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind: and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth. And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.

And God said, Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind: and it was so. And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creepeth upon the ground after its kind: and God saw that it was good. And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. And God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. And God blessed them: and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for food: and to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for food: and it was so. And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

2 And the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God finished his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it he rested from all his work which God had created and made.

These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that Jehovah God made earth and heaven. And no plant of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for Jehovah God had not caused it to rain upon the earth: and there was not a man to till the ground; but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. And Jehovah God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. And Jehovah God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made Jehovah God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads. The name of the first is Pishon: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; and the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth in front of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates. And Jehovah God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And Jehovah God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

And Jehovah God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him. And out of the ground Jehovah God formed every beast of the field, and every bird of the heavens; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them: and whatsoever the man called every living creature, that was the name thereof. And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the heavens, and to every beast of the field; but for man there was not found a help meet for him. And Jehovah God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof: and the rib, which Jehovah God had taken from the man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And the man said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. (Genesis chapters 1 and 2).

² This wrecking of the earth was probably caused by Satan's rebellion against God. (Reread Ezek. 28:11-17.)


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