OUTLINE OF MESSIAH'S CAREER ACCORDING TO PSALM FORTY-FIVE
לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל־שֹׁשַׁנִּים לִבְנֵי־קֹרַח מַשְׂכִּיל שִׁיר יְדִידֹת׃ רָחַשׁ לִבִּי דָּבָר טוֹב אֹמֵר אָנִי מַעֲשַׂי לְמֶלֶךְ לְשׁוֹנִי עֵט סוֹפֵר מָהִיר׃ יָפְיָפִיתָ מִבְּנֵי אָדָם הוּצַק חֵן בְּשִׂפְתוֹתֶיךָ עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַכְךָ אֱלֹהִים לְעוֹלָם׃ חֲגוֹר חַרְבְּךָ עַל־יָרֵךְ גִּבּוֹר הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ׃ וַהֲדָרְךָ צְלַח רְכַב עַל־דְּבַר־אֱמֶת וְעַנְוָה־צֶדֶק וְתוֹרְךָ נוֹרָאוֹת יְמִינֶךָ׃ חִצֶּיךָ שְׁנוּנִים עַמִּים תַּחְתֶּיךָ יִפְּלוּ בְּלֵב אוֹיְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ כִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹהִים עוֹלָם וָעֶד שֵׁבֶט מִישֹׁר שֵׁבֶט מַלְכוּתֶךָ׃ אָהַבְתָּ צֶּדֶק וַתִּשְׂנָא רֶשַׁע עַל־כֵּן מְשָׁחֲךָ אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן מֵחֲבֵרֶךָ׃
"My heart overfloweth with a goodly matter;
I speak the things which I have made touching the king:
My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.
Thou art fairer than the children of men;
Grace is poured into thy lips:
Therefore God hath blessed thee for ever.
Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, 0 mighty one,
Thy glory and thy majesty.
And in thy majesty ride on prosperously,
Because of truth and meekness and righteousness:
And thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things.
Thine arrows are sharp;
The peoples fall under thee;
They are in the heart of the king's enemies.
Thy throne, 0 God, is for ever and ever:
A sceptre of equity is the sceptre of thy kingdom.
Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wickedness:
Therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee
With the oil of gladness above thy fellows (Psa. 45:1-7).
I. INSPIRATION OF THE PSALM
In verse 1 the author declares that the goodly matter which is welling up in his heart like an artesian well concerns "the King" and claims that his tongue is the tongue of a ready writer. The Targum affirms that this Psalm is Messianic by inserting the word "Messiah" after king. In these words, doubtless, the writer is making the same claim to inspiration that David made in II Sam. 23:2, who also sang of this same King Messiah.
II. THE HUMANITY OF MESSIAH
In verse 2 the Psalmist seeing the Messiah in the prophetic vision and turning to Him speaks in the following language: "Thou art fairer than the children of men; Grace is poured into thy lips: Therefore God hath blessed thee forever." From this language it is evident that King Messiah is a Man, for He is fairer than the children of men. The word translated "fairer" is a reduplicated verb, which combination lays special stress upon the physique and personal appearance of the Messiah; therefore He stands in a class by Himself, judged from the physical standpoint.
To this physical beauty is added the charm which is the result of the graciousness of His heart as is expressed in the words "grace is poured into thy lips." These words are used because the Psalmist wished to call attention to the outstanding characteristics of the Messiah as He stands before him in all of his beauty and grace. Character stamps itself upon the physical countenance (cf. Isa. 3:9). The compassionate, tender, loving attitude of the Messiah expresses itself in His facial expressions, especially upon the lips. Evidently then the Psalmist viewed King Messiah as He speaks a message of grace, truth, and love to the down-trodden, sin-cursed, and lost world.
III. THE DIVINE NATURE OF MESSIAH
Suddenly, without the slightest intimation in verse 3 the author speaks to Messiah, urging Him to "Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, 0 Mighty One, Thy glory and thy majesty. And in thy majesty ride on prosperously, Because of truth and meekness and righteousness: And thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things." He, Who in verse 2, is a messenger of good tidings to the oppressed, suddenly, in verse 3, becomes a warrior Who is to gird Himself with His sword and Who is to rush as a mighty warrior into battle. He is "the Mighty One." The same word is used in Isa. 9:6(5) in speaking of the Child Who is born to the Jewish nation and Who is God manifest in the flesh. In this passage it modifies אֵל which words are translated "Mighty God." This conclusion is confirmed by the fact that this Mighty Warrior is also to gird Himself with הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ׃ "Thy glory and thy majesty." These words are used in Psa. 104:1 with reference to the God of Israel in the following statement: הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ "Thou art clothed with honor and majesty." These are the regular words, the primary meaning of which is the halo of glory with which God surrounds Himself. Confirmatory evidence is likewise found in the thought, that He in His majesty is to "ride on prosperously, because of truth and meekness and righteousness." In this warfare for truth and righteousness He is to experience נוֹרָאוֹת "terrible things," the regular word used with reference to manifestations of Divine power and judgments. Hence King Messiah is none other than God manifest in the flesh.
IV. THE VICTORY OF MESSIAH
In verse 5 the Psalmist pictures the result of the battle after King Messiah has won the victory: "Thine arrows are sharp; The peoples fall under thee; They are in the heart of the king's enemies." The nations being conquered by this mighty, powerful King Messiah are subdued. David in Psalm 24 saw King Messiah approaching Jerusalem and shouted, "Who is the King of Glory?" And then answered by saying, "The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle." Evidently, David saw Messiah after he had won the victory mentioned in this passage.
V. THE REIGN OF MESSIAH
As suddenly and as unexpectedly, as in the former verse, the scene is shifted in verse 6; having conquered His foes and having established His rule upon the earth, King Messiah is addressed by the prophet in the following words: "Thy throne, 0 God, is for ever and ever; A sceptre of equity is the sceptre of thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wickedness: Therefore God, thy God hath anointed thee With the oil of gladness above thy fellows." Here the Psalmist sees King Messiah, God in the flesh, sitting upon the throne of David, which is the throne of the Lord (I Chron. 29:23) and reigning in righteousness, wielding a sceptre of equity throughout His universal dominion. Recognizing the true nature of King Messiah the prophet addresses Him as God and declares that His throne "is forever and forever." This language proves conclusively that Messiah is God incarnate.
As seen above, King Messiah, in verse 2, is grace, compassion, and pity personified, speaking a message of grace and truth to the people. But in verses 3 and 4 His wrath and indignation are stirred to the very depths, and He marches forth, therefore, as a mighty warrior conquering His foes. This latter picture evidently is the same as that presented by Isaiah (63:1-6). The seeming contradiction between the Messiah as the very embodiment of grace and truth and His warlike attitude disappears in the light of Psa. 110 which shows conclusively that Messiah upon His first advent comes with a message of grace; but at His second coming He comes as a champion of righteousness suppressing all unrighteousness. After His conquest He mounts the throne of David and reigns over the nations in righteousness.
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